IELTS Academic: 60+ тем эссе

Все темы, что я приведу, могут быть вам знакомы. Они из этих книг:

  • Cambridge Tests 7-14,
  • Ready for IELTS (2nd edition),
  • The Official Cambridge Guide to IELTS,
  • The Complete Guide to IELTS.

Я решила их собрать в одном месте и разделить на группы, чтобы немного помочь с критерием Task response. Здесь баллы 7, 7.5, 8, 8.5 и 9 дают, если раскрыты все пункты задания, приведены подходящие примеры и обоснования, дана четкая позиция по вопросу. Без понимания типа эссе эти задачи редко выполнимы. Все задания касаются Академического модуля, но типы эссе в Общем модуле такие же. Для него я сделаю отдельный текст.

По ключевым словам в заданиях эссе удобнее распределить на пять групп. По хорошему, некоторые так или иначе перекликаются. В тексте мы или рассматриваем две точки зрения, приводим «за» и «против (two sides, advantages and disadvantages) или углубляем, разрабатываем одну (opinion, two questions, problems and solutions).

Opinion

Основные ключи: To what extent…?, Do you think it is a positive or negative development?, Do you agree or disagree? Образец такого текста смотрите здесь.

Образование, воспитание, работа

  • It is much easier to learn in a small class than in a larger one. 
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Children all over the world should learn to speak a single, universal language fluently in addition to their native language. 
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • The most important reason for a young person to attend a university is to increase the amount of money that he or she will earn in the future.
    To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • It is better to run your own business than to work for someone else.
    To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Language teachers should concentrate on positive feedback to students when they do good work, rather than on criticising bad work.
    To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Nowadays there is a greater focus at all levels in education on science and business studies rather than the arts.
    Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
  • Some people believe that unpaid community service should be a compulsory part of high school programmes (for example, working for a charity, improving the neighbourhood or teaching to younger children).
    To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Every year several languages die out. Some people think that his is not important because life will be easier if there are fewer languages in the world. 
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

Философские вопросы

  • People learn more from failure than from success.
    To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Success in life is more matter of luck than ability.
 To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people say that music is a good way of bringing people of different cultures and ages together.
    To what extent do you agree of disagree with this opinion?
  • Some people believe that nowadays we have too many choices. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

Технологии

  • Face-to-face meetings with people are much more effective than meetings held on the telephone or via the Internet. 
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Nowadays more and more museums and art galleries around the world are putting their material contents online.
 Do you think it is a positive or negative development?
  • Nowadays technology is influencing modern art in areas such as design, painting and film.
    Do you think this is a positive or negative development?

Социальные проблемы

  • The money used to fund space research would be better used to solve the many problems we have on Earth.
    To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Countries are becoming more and more similar because people are able to buy the same products anywhere in the world. 
Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
  • The best way to reduce emissions from vehicles is to impose a higher tax on vehicles which use a lot of fuel and a lower tax on those that don’t.
    To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • The use of cell phones while driving should be strictly forbidden. 
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Instead of being held in a different city each time, the Olympic Games should be held at a permanent site.
    To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people think it is important to keep and maintain old buildings rather than replacing them with modern buildings.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people think that the world is now one large village and we are all responsible for each other.
 To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • 


Today more people than ever are traveling around the world.
 Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
  • Some people think that the increase in international travel has a negative impact on the environment and should be restricted. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people think it is important to construct new buildings rather than wasting money on maintaining old ones.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
  • In some countries an increasing number of people are suffering from health problems as as result of eating too much fast food. It is therefore necessary for governments to impose a higher tax on this kind of food.
    To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
  • Living in a country where you have to speak a foreign language can cause serious social problems, as well as practical problems.
    To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
  • Governments should spend money on railways rather that roads.
    To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
  • Some people claim that not enough of the waste from homes is recycled. They day that the only way to increase recycling is for governments to make it a legal requirement. 
To what extent do you think laws are needed to make people recycle more of the their waste?

Two sides 

Основные ключи: Discuss, Discuss both views and give your own opinion. В задании, как правило, есть два противоположных мнения.

Образование, воспитание, работа

  • Some people think that parents should teach children how to be good members of society. Others, however, believe that school is the place to learn this.
    Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think that all university students should study whatever they like. Others believe they should only be allowed to study subjects that will be useful in the future, such as those related to science and technology.
Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think only parents are responsible for teaching children how to behave. others think the main responsibility lies with schools and the government. 
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people work for the same organisation all their working life. Others think that it is better to work for different organisations.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people say history is one of the most important school subjects. Other people think that, in today’s world, subjects like Science and Technology are more important than History. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think that schools should use teaching methods that encourage students to cooperate. Other people think that schools should use teaching methods that encourage students to compete.
    Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • Some jobs are based at a single work place where the hours are the same each day, while other jobs involve frequent travel and irregular working hours. 
Discuss the advantages of both types of job and give your own opinion about which one is best.Some people think multiple choice tests are better than tests which require you to write an essay. Other people think that tests which require you to write an essay are better. 
Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people believe that software programming should be taught at the primary school. Others think that focus at this level should be on playing. 
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people believe that it is good to share as much information as possible in scientific research, business and the academic world. Others believe that some information is too important or too valuable to be shared freely. 
Discuss both views and give your word opinion.
  • Some people believe that allowing children to make their own choices on everyday matters (such as food, clothes and entertainment) is likely to result in a society of individuals who only think about their own wishes. Other people believe that it is important for children to make decisions about matters that affect them. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people say that the only reason for learning a foreign language is in order to travel to or work in a foreign country. Others say that these are not the only reasons why someone should learn a foreign language.
    Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Технологии

  • Some people believe that technology had led to many positive developments in their lives, while others think technology is gradually taking over control of the way people live
. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Философские вопросы

  • Some people believe that it is best to accept a bad situation, such as an unsatisfactory job or shortage of money. Others argue that that it better to try and improve such situations. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

Социальные проблемы

  • Some people like to shop in traditional shops. Other people prefer to do their shopping online.
    Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think that it is good to preserve old buildings whenever possible. 
Other people think that it is preferable to construct new buildings. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • In a number of countries, some people think it is necessary to spend larger sums of money on constructing new railway lines for very fast trains between cities. others believe the money should be spent on improving existing public transport.
    Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Many governments think that economic progress is their important goal. Some people, however, think that other types of progress are equally important for a country.
    Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people say that the best way to improve public health is by increasing the number of sports facilities. Others, however, say that this would have little effect on public health and other measures are required. 
Discuss both these views and give your own.
  • Some people say that the main environmental problem of your time is the loss of particular species of plants and animals. Others say that there are more important environmental problems. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Problems and Solutions

Основные ключи: difficulties/ problems, solutions, solve, What causes…?, What can be done?

  • Every year millions of people around the world suffer from poor health as a result of air pollution.
What do you think are the causes of this?
 What solutions can you suggest?
  • In many parts of the world, there is not enough food for everyone. 
What do you think are the causes of this?
    What solutions can you suggest?
  • In many parts of the world, illiteracy rates are still high. 
What do you think are the causes of this?
 What solutions can you suggest?
  • One problem faced by almost every large city is traffic congestion. What do you think are the causes of this?
 What solutions can you suggest?
  • Nowadays stress-related illnesses are becoming increasingly common. What do you think are the causes of this?
 What solutions can you suggest?
  • 

Many species of animals have become extinct in recent times.
 What are the causes of this? 
What solutions can you suggest?
  • Dietary experts agree than many people have unhealthy diets. 
What do you think are the causes of this?
    What solutions can you suggest?
  • In many large cities, some people waste hours of their time every day because of traffic congestion on the road. 
What do you think are the causes of this?
 What solutions can you suggest?
  • In some countries the average weight of people is increasing and their levels of health and fitness are decreasing. 
What do you think are the causes of these problems and what measures could be taken to solve them?

Two questions

Ключи: Два вопроса, но не про проблему и возможные пути ее решения. Первый вопрос может быть про мнение, второй — про последствия, меры, влияние и прочее.

  • In the modern world many employers lack soft skills such as communication and working in teams. 
What are the main causes of this problem? What are the effects of the lack of such skills?
  • The best way for employers to make their workforce happy is allow them more flexible working hours. 
To what extent do you agree? What other measures could be effective?
  • Taking up some kind of sport is the best way for people to improve their social and psychological well-being. 
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
    What other measures do you think might be effective?
  • Some people think that the best way to broaden young people’s understanding of the world is to encourage them to travel to other countries.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
    What other measures do you think might be effective?
  • Investment in local amenities such as leisure centres is the best way for the government to foster a good community sprint.
    To what extent do you agree or disagree?
    What other measures do you think might be effective?
  • Car ownership has increased so rapidly over the past thirty years that many cities in the world are now ‘one big traffic jam’.
    How true do you think this statement is?
    What measures can governments take to discourage people from using their cars?
  • Nowadays the way many people interact with each other has changes because of technology. 
In what ways has technology affected the types of relationships people make? 
Has this become a positive or negative development?
  • Nowadays many people choose to be self-employed, rather than to word for a company or organisation. Why might this be the case? What could be the advantages of being self-employed?
  • Increasing the price of petrol is the best way to solve growing traffic and pollution problems. 
To what extent do you agree or disagree? 
What other measures do you think might be effective?
  • It is important for children to learn the difference between right and wrong at an early age. Punishment is necessary to help them learn this distinction. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? What sort of punishment should parents and teachers be allowed to use to teach good behaviours to children?

Advantages and Disadvantages

Чаще бывает в Общем модуле, но в Академическом тоже случается. Основные ключевые слова: positive and negative sides, advantages and disadvantages.

  • One of the consequences of improved medical care is that people are living longer and life expectancy is increasing.
Do you think the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages?
  • In spite of the advance made in agriculture, many people are around the world still go hungry. 
Why is this case? 
What can be done about this problem?
  • At the present time, the population of some countries included a relatively larger number of young adults, compared with the number of older people.
    Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Many museums charge for admission while others are free. 
Do you think the advantages of charging pole for admission to museums outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Some experts believe that it is better for children to begin learning a foreign language at primary school rather than secondary school. 
Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?

Про структуру каждого из типов и четыре критерия оценивания (Task response, Coherence and cohesion, Lexical resource, Grammatical range and accuracy) я подробно буду писать в следующих постах.